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Russian illegal arm supplies to Armenia

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Illegal transfer of Russian arms and military equipment took place during the period from 1993-1996, as well as further military build-up in Armenia, which is in progress,  have considerably aggravated both the settlement of the conflict and the security climate in the region in general. The Republic of Azerbaijan raises this issue constantly: on bilateral level with Russia, in Trilateral Commission established by Azerbaijan, Russia and Armenia, as well as within the framework of international institutions.

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Illegal Transfer in Figures
Costs (in US dollars) of the kinds of battle equipment, arms and military property transferred to Armenia from January 1993, to December 1996 (based on the average commercial prices):

N Name Price per item Quantity Total cost
1 R-17 missile systems 210,000 8 1,680,000
R-17 missiles 210.000 32 6,720,000
2 «Krua» surface-to-air systems 300.000 27 8,100,000
Missiles for Them 300,000 349 104,700,000
3 Missiles for the «Osa» Surface-to-air systems 200,000 40 8,000,000
4 T-72 tanks 1,200,000 84 100,800,000
5 BMP-2 Armored Combat Vehicles 280,000 50 14,000,000
6 122 nun D-30 howitzers 52,000 36 1,872,000
7 155 mm D-20 howitzers 40,000 18 720,000
8 152mmD-l howitzers 50,000 18 900,000
9 «Grad» multiple missile systems 250,000 18 4,500,000
10 Mortars 12,0000 26 312,000
11 Portable «igla» anti-aircraft systems 40,000 40 1,600,000
Missiles for Them 40,000 200 8,000,000
12 Grenade launchers 2,500 20 50,000
13 Machine-guns 400 306 122,400
14 Assault rifles 120 7,910 949,200
15 Pistols 60 1,847 110,820
16 Shells (various) 400 489.160 195,664,000
17 Shells for ACV (BMP-2) 30 478,480 14,354,400
18 BM anti-tank self-targeting missiles 330,000 4 1,320,000
Anti-tank self-targeting missiles 8,400 945 7,938,000
19 Hand grenades 30 345,800 10,374,000
20 Different types of bullets 1 227,253,000 227,253,000
? Other types of weapons, equipment and military property Apprx. 270,000,000.00

TOTAL
(with transportation and other costs) apprx.$ 1 billion
Arms, equipment and military property also include: transporting and weapon loading machines, various types of movable oil-wheels radio (including space communications stations), sets of communications equipment field communications cables target! detection stations tanking equipment fuel, accumulators of carious types (including battle tank ones), oil barrels, spare parts to tanks, cannons and BMP’s, tank engines etc.
Below is a breakdown of Armenia’s military hardware illegally stationed on Azerbaijan’ occupied territories

N Military Units Location Battle Tanks ACV AP
1 583 Independent Infantry Brigade Agdaban 13 15 15
2 2 Independent Infantry Brigade Karakhanbeyli 29 23 36
3 83 Independent Infantry Brigade Dashkesan 20 27 22
4 Mardakert Infantry Division Mardakert 76 79 74
5 Askeran Infantry Regiment Agdam 32 43 42
6 Martuni Infantry Regiment Martuni 40 60 40
7 Hadrut Infantry Regiment Gadrut 20 32 22
8 Stepanakert Infantry Regiment Khankendi 18 28 22
9 Khojaly Training Unit Khojaly 52 7 39
10 Shusha Infantry Regiment Shusha 16 10 10
Battle Tanks ?316
Armored Combat vehicles ?324
Artillery Pieces ?322

At the end of 1993 and beginning of 1994, 23 T-72 battle tanks and 12 ACV?s transferred to Armenia by the Russian Federation were captured in the course of combat activities on the territory of Azerbaijan.

Thus, as a result of Russia’ continues illegal military transfers to Armenia, the latter does not only violate the Conventional Forces in Europe (CFE) Treaty itself, but also managed to conceal significant amounts of military equipment on the occupied territories of Azerbaijan, which, being under Armenian occupation, are clearly not subject to CFE inspections.

Violation of International norms by Russia

A number of basic international legal norms have been violated, including the following United Nations Security Council and General Assembly documents, as well as documents of the Commonwealth of the Independent Slates, provisions of the Treaty on Conventional Forces in Europe and related provisions:

UN:
Security Council Resolution No. 853 (paragraph 10) of July 29. 1993
– Calls states to refrain from deliveries of weapons and military property, which could bring about escalations of conflict or continuing an occupation of territory.
Security Council Resolution No. 884 (paragraph 6) of November 12, 1993
– Strongly calls all states in the region to refrain from any hostile acts and from any interference, which could spread conflict and undermine peace and security in the region.
General Assembly Resolution 51/45
– Envisages measures on the prevention of illegal deliveries and illegal using of usual weapons.
General Assembly Resolution 51/47 B
– Report of Commission on the Disarmament.
CIS: A declaration on abstaining from use or threat of force in relations between the states. (Meeting of Council of CIS Heads of States, March 20, 1992, Kiev).
– Paragraph 2 of the Declaration stated that member – states declare that they «…do not deliver weapons to the zones of conflicts.»
Agreement on Collective Security (May 15,1992)
– Article 1 «…Member – states will not take part in actions directed against other member-states.»
Memorandum on Peacekeeping and Stability in the CIS. (February 10,1995)
– Violations of paragraphs 1, 3, 5, 8, 9.
The Tashkent Agreement principles and compliance with the CFE Treaty (May 1992)
– Violated Article 4, paragraph 1.
Treaty on Conventional Forces in Europe (CFE)
– Violated provisions of Treaty – Article VIII paragraph 8, Article XIII;
– Protocol on notification and information exchange. Section VIII, paragraph 1, sub-paragraph (B);
– Protocol on notification and information exchange, Section IX, paragraph 1, sub-paragraphs (A) and (B);
– Protocol on notification and information exchange, Section X, paragraph 1, sub-paragraphs (A) and (B);
– Also this information is not reflected in annual military information exchange, presented according to provisions of Protocol on notification and information exchange, Section VII, paragraph 1, sub-paragraph (C);

1994 Vienna Document of Negotiations on Confidence and Security Building Measures
– Unauthentic information is presented within the framework of the annual military informa?tion exchange (Chapter I. paragraphs 9.10,13-15)
– Global Military Information Exchange Presented Unauthentic information (paragraph 3.4,6).Besides violating international norms, officials, who have been implementing the illegal supplies of arms and equipment to Armenia, violated the laws of Russian Federation:In accordance with the law of the Russian Federation (RF) «On Defense», the-Government of RF sets the procedure for transfer, sale and liquidation of arms, equipment and military property;
– Article 2 of the Provision «On military-technical cooperation of Russian Federation with foreign countries»
– Article 65 of the Guidelines «For arms equipment, military property and other properly in the USSR Armed Forces» (annex to the USSR MoD Order No.260-1979)
– Instruction of the RF President No, 623-RPC of September 9, 1993, to prohibit all arms, equipment supplies to Armenia and Azerbaijan until special order is placed and the peaceful settlement of the conflict in Mountainous Karabakh;The Russian legislation further envisages criminal responsibility for the following actions:
– Illegal transfer of weapons (Article 222 of RF Criminal Code) planning, preparation or promotion of military aggression (Article 353 of the RF Criminal Code).

Source: «Karabakh» [info book] XXI YNE Baku 1999 (in English) pp.124-125, 139-140

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